Mat 16:13 Now when Jesus came into the district of Caesarea Philippi, He was asking His disciples, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" Mat 16:14 and they said, "Some say John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; but still others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets."
Why would Jesus ask this? Several answered that he was John the Baptist reincarnated. Herod believed that. Some said that he was a prophet predicted in Deuteronomy 18:18. Others thought that it was Elijah returned because of Malachi 4:5 and finally Jeremiah because the bible never mentioned his death so some believed he never died.
Peter answered correctly and that is what Jesus was after. It was further assurance that the disciples did not have other beliefs. Jesus said that Peter had learned this from the father in Heaven. Jesus also told Peter that he would be the foundation for his church. This struck me odd. Peter would be the one to deny Christ three times.
Mat 16:18 "I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. Mat 16:19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven." Mat 16:20 Then He warned the disciples that they should tell no one that He was the Christ. Mat 16:21 From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. Mat 16:22 Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, "God forbid it, Lord! This shall never happen to You." Mat 16:23 But He turned and said to Peter, "Get behind Me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to Me; for you are not setting your mind on God's interests, but man's."
I am sure Peter meant well. Jesus was a friend plus he knew that Jesus was the son of God and he did not want to see him hurt. But Peter’s short term idea was not in God’s plan. Ergo he was aiding Satan.
Mat 16:24 Then Jesus said to His disciples, "If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross and follow Me. Mat 16:25 "For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it; but whoever loses his life for My sake will find it.
Mat 16:26 "For what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world and forfeits his soul? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul?
Mat 16:27 "For the Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and WILL THEN REPAY EVERY MAN ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS.
Mat 16:28 "Truly I say to you, there are some of those who are standing here who will not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in His kingdom."
Jesus was now giving a heads up on what is going to happen and that there is a cost associated with Christianity. You have to give your life up to Jesus in order to save your soul. The last verse is confusing. I will paste in what the Life Application New Testament Commentary says.
When Jesus said some will not die before seeing the coming of the Kingdom, he may have been referring toPeter, James, and John, who would witness the Transfiguration a few days later;
those who would witness the Resurrection and Ascension;the Holy Spirit’s coming at Pentecost; and
all who would take part in the spread of the church after Pentecost.Some people reading this passage have assumed that Jesus was promising that the disciples would not die before he came back to set up his glorious Kingdom. Perhaps the disciples themselves at first thought that Jesus was referring to his glorious rule on earth. But the disciples have died, so this passage must be interpreted differently. Jesus’ Transfiguration, which immediately follows (Mat_17:1-13), was a preview of that coming glory. At the Transfiguration, Peter, James, and John saw Jesus’ glory, identity, and power as the Son of God. Thus, certain disciples were eyewitnesses to the power and glory of Christ’s Kingdom. Jesus’ point was that his listeners would not have to wait for another Messiah because the Kingdom was among them, and it would soon come in power.